Pneumonia Dubai is an infection of the lungs that involves the small air sacs and tissues around them. It isn’t a single illness but many different ones, each caused by a different microscopic organism.
Pneumonia usually starts after organisms are inhaled into the lungs, but sometimes the infection is carried to the lungs by the bloodstream or it migrates to the lungs directly from a nearby infection. The most common causes are bacteria in adults, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella, and Haemophilus influenzae. Viruses, such as influenza, Covid19 and chickenpox, can also cause pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a bacteria-like (atypical) organism, is a particularly common cause of pneumonia in older children and younger adults. Some people are more susceptible to pneumonia dubai than others.
Common symptoms of pneumonia are a cough that produces sputum, chest pain, chills, fever, and shortness of breath. These symptoms may vary, however, depending on how extensive the disease is and which microorganism is causing it. In most cases, the diagnosis of pneumonia dubai is confirmed with a chest x-ray. Sputum and blood specimens are examined in an attempt to identify the organism causing pneumonia. However, the precise organism can’t be identified in up to half of people who have pneumonia. People who aren’t very sick can take oral antibiotics and remain at home. The elderly and those who are short of breath or have pre-existing heart or lung disease are generally hospitalized and given intravenous antibiotics.
When you get pneumonia – whether it was caused by bacteria, a virus, or a fungus – there’s a chance it could lead to other medical troubles. Learn the signs of these complications and get treatment right away to keep any health problems you get under control.
If bacteria caused your pneumonia, they could get into your blood, especially if you didn’t see a doctor for treatment. It’s a problem called bacteremia.
Bacteremia can lead to a serious situation known as septic shock. It’s a reaction to the infection in your blood, and it can cause your blood pressure to drop to a dangerous level. When your blood pressure is too low, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to your organs, and they can stop working. Get medical help right away if you notice symptoms like:
– fast heart rate
– fast breathing
– chills that make you shiver
– low blood pressure
– stomach upset (nausea, pain, vomiting, or diarrhea)
When you have pneumonia, it’s possible for your lungs to fill with fluid. If that happens, they won’t be able to transfer enough oxygen to your blood or get rid of the carbon dioxide in your blood. It’s a serious condition because your organs need oxygen to work. If your pneumonia is severe or you’re in the hospital to treat it, your care team will watch you for signs of this rare – but life-threatening – complication. You’re more likely to get respiratory failure if you’re being treated in the hospital, have a weak immune system or you’re elderly.
Get medical help right away if you have any of these symptoms:
– fast breathing or not being able to breathe fully
– feel like you cannot get enough air
– racing or irregular heart rate
– a bluish tint to your skin, fingertips, or lips
– extreme restlessness
– losing consciousness
If you have bacteremia or septic shock, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to your kidneys. It’s not a common complication of pneumonia, but it’s serious because your kidneys will stop working if they’re not getting enough blood. Your odds of getting kidney failure are higher if you’re in the hospital or have other medical conditions on top of your pneumonia.
Dr Barbara Karin Vela is an International Member of Royal College Of General Practitioners, UK
Pneumonia is swelling (inflammation) of the tissue in one or both lungs. It’s usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can also be caused by a virus, such as coronavirus (COVID-19).
SYMPTOMS OF PNEUMONIA
The symptoms of pneumonia can develop suddenly over 24 to 48 hours, or they may come on more slowly over several days.
Common symptoms of pneumonia include:
– a cough which may be dry, or produce thick yellow, green, brown or blood-stained mucus (phlegm)
– difficulty breathing – your breathing may be rapid and shallow, and you may – feel breathless, even when resting
– rapid heartbeat
– high temperature
– feeling generally unwell
– sweating and shivering
– loss of appetite
– chest pain – which gets worse when breathing or coughing
Less common symptoms include:
– coughing up blood (haemoptysis)
– feeling sick or being sick
– joint and muscle pain
– feeling confused and disorientated, particularly in elderly people
Pneumonia can affect people of any age, but it’s more common, and can be more serious, in certain groups of people, such as the very young or the elderly.
People in these groups are more likely to need hospital treatment if they develop pneumonia.
WHAT CAUSES PNEUMONIA
Pneumonia is usually the result of a bacterial infection. As well as bacterial pneumonia, other types include:
– viral pneumonia – caused by a virus, such as coronavirus
– aspiration pneumonia – caused by breathing in vomit, a foreign object, such as a peanut, or a harmful substance, such as smoke or a chemical
– fungal pneumonia – rare and more likely to affect people with a weakened immune system
– hospital-acquired pneumonia – pneumonia that develops in hospital while being treated for another condition or having an operation; people in intensive care on breathing machines are particularly at risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia
THOSE AT GREATER RISK OF PNEUMONIA
The following groups have an increased risk of developing pneumonia:
– babies and very young children
– elderly people
– people who smoke
– people with other health conditions, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, or a heart, kidney or liver condition
– people with a weakened immune system – for example, as a result of a recent illness, such as flu, having HIV or AIDS, having chemotherapy, or taking medicine after an organ transplant
Dr Barbara Karin Vela may be able to diagnose pneumonia by asking about your symptoms and examining your chest. Further tests may be needed in some cases.
Pneumonia can be difficult to diagnose because it shares many symptoms with other conditions, such as the common cold, bronchitis and asthma.
To help make a diagnosis, she may ask you:
– whether you feel breathless or you’re breathing faster than usual
– how long you have had your cough, and whether you’re coughing up mucus and what colour it is
– if the pain in your chest is worse when you breathe in or out
Dr Barbara Karin Vela may also take your temperature and listen to your chest and back with a stethoscope to check for any crackling or rattling sounds. They may also listen to your chest by tapping it. Lungs filled with fluid produce a different sound from normal healthy lungs.
If you have mild pneumonia, you probably will not need to have a chest X-ray or any other tests. You may need a chest X-ray or other tests, such as a sputum (mucus) test or blood tests, if your symptoms have not improved within 48 hours of starting treatment.
Mild pneumonia can usually be treated at home by:
– getting plenty of rest
– taking antibiotics if the pneumonia is likely to be caused by a bacterial infection
– drinking plenty of fluids
If you do not have any other health problems, you should respond well to treatment and soon recover, although your cough may last for some time. For at-risk groups, pneumonia can be severe and may need to be treated in hospital.
This is because it can lead to serious complications, which in some cases can be fatal, depending on a person’s health and age.
COMPLICATIONS OF PNEUMONIA
Complications of pneumonia are more common in young children, the elderly and those with pre-existing health conditions, such as diabetes.
Possible complications of pneumonia include:
– pleurisy – where the thin linings between your lungs and ribcage (pleura) become inflamed, which can lead to respiratory failure
– a lung abscess – a rare complication that’s mostly seen in people with a serious pre-existing illness or a history of severe alcohol misuse
– blood poisoning (sepsis) – also a rare but serious complication
You’ll be admitted to hospital for treatment if you develop one of these complications.
Although most cases of pneumonia are bacterial and are not passed on from one person to another, ensuring good standards of hygiene will help prevent germs spreading.
For example, you should:
– cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief or tissue when you cough or sneeze
– throw away used tissues immediately – germs can live for several hours after they leave your nose or mouth
– wash your hands regularly to avoid transferring germs to other people or objects
A healthy lifestyle can also help prevent pneumonia. For example, you should stop smoking as it damages your lungs and increases the chance of infection.
Excessive and prolonged alcohol misuse also weakens your lungs’ natural defences against infections, making you more vulnerable to pneumonia. People at high risk of pneumonia should be offered the pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.
Mild pneumonia can usually be treated at home with rest, antibiotics (if it’s likely be caused by a bacterial infection) and by drinking plenty of fluids. More severe cases may need hospital treatment. Unless Dr Barbara Karin Vela tells you otherwise, you should always finish taking a prescribed course of antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you stop taking an antibiotic part way through a course, the bacteria can become resistant to the antibiotic. After starting treatment, your symptoms should steadily improve.
SOME PNEUMONIA TERMS WORTH KNOWING
Aspiration pneumonia occurs when food or liquid is breathed into the airways or lungs, instead of being swallowed. The major features of the lungs include the bronchi, the bronchioles and the alveoli.
Atypical pneumonia is an infection affecting the lower respiratory tract. The types of bacteria that cause it tend to create less severe symptoms than those in typical pneumonia. If the atypical pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma, then it is common to have ear and sinus infections, as well.
Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of your lungs caused by certain bacteria. The most common one is Streptococcus (pneumococcus), but other bacteria can cause it too. If you’re young and basically healthy, these bacteria can live in your throat without causing any trouble.
Bilateral interstitial pneumonia is a serious infection that can inflame and scar your lungs. It’s one of many types of interstitial lung diseases, which affect the tissue around the tiny air sacs in your lungs. You can get this type of pneumonia as a result of COVID-19. Bilateral types of pneumonia affect both lungs.
Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that causes inflammation in the alveoli. Someone with bronchopneumonia may have trouble breathing because their airways are constricted. Due to inflammation, their lungs may not get enough air. Symptoms of bronchopneumonia can be mild or severe.
Klebsiella pneumoniae are bacteria that normally live in your intestines and feces. They are referred to as Gram-negative, encapsulated, and nonmobile bacteria. They also have a high tendency to become antibiotic resistant. These bacteria are harmless when they’re in your intestines or stool. But if they spread to another part of your body, such as your lungs, they can cause severe infections.
Lobar pneumonia is a form of pneumonia characterized by inflammatory exudate within the intra-alveolar space resulting in consolidation that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung. Lobar pneumonia. Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body.
Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) is a type of bacteria that can cause many symptoms, including dry cough, fever, and mild shortness of breath on exertion. The Mycoplasma pneumonia bacterium is one of the most recognized of all human pathogens, and there are more than 200 different known species.
Pneumococcal disease is a name for any infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Pneumococcal infections can range from ear and sinus infections to pneumonia and bloodstream infections. There are vaccines to help prevent pneumococcal disease.
Pneumonitis is a general term that refers to inflammation of lung tissue. Technically, pneumonia is a type of pneumonitis because the infection causes inflammation. Pneumonitis, however, is usually used by doctors to refer to noninfectious causes of lung inflammation.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). People with pneumococcal disease can spread the bacteria to others when they cough or sneeze. Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body, including lungs (pneumonia) and ears (otitis)
Viruses that cause pneumonia travel through the air in droplets of fluid after someone sneezes or coughs. These fluids can get into your body through your nose or mouth. You can also get viral pneumonia after touching a virus-covered doorknob or keyboard and then touching your mouth or nose.
Walking pneumonia is an informal term for pneumonia that isn’t severe enough to require bed rest or hospitalization. You may feel like you have a cold. The symptoms are generally so mild that you don’t feel you need to stay home from work or school, so you are out walking around.